Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and the Built Environment

Main Article Content

Issue Vol. 3 No. 1 (2020)
Published Jan 24, 2020
Section Articles
Article downloads 648
Submitted : Sep 30, 2019 | Accepted : Dec 5, 2019

Dak Kopec Kendall Marsh


Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) are often connected to the development of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), a degenerative brain disease commonly found in athletes, military veterans, and others that have a history of repetitive brain trauma. This formative exploratory study looked at person-centred design techniques for a person with CTE. The person-centred design method used for this study was based on a two-tiered reductionist approach; the first tier was to identify common symptoms and concerns associated with CTE from the literature. This information provided specific symptoms that were addressed through brainstorming ideations. Each singular ideation accommodated the singular, or small cluster of symptoms, that affected a person with CTE in a residential environment. This method of understanding a health condition through its symptoms, and then designing for those symptoms can extend the practice of interior design by providing probable solutions to specific health symptoms, thereby including designers into the healthcare team. Commonly identified behavioural and physical symptoms of CTE served as the factors of analysis and thus a variable of design. The health condition symptoms became the variables of design, and each symptom was assessed through additional data obtained from the literature for environmental causality, mitigation, or accommodation. Once the outcomes were determined, each design implication was assessed for its relationship to specific design actions.

Keywords: person-centred design, Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs), Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), residential design

Article Details

How to Cite
Kopec, D., & Marsh, K. (2020). Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and the Built Environment. Interiority, 3(1), 97–116.
Author Biographies

Dak Kopec, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA

Dak Kopec holds a Ph.D. in Environmental Psychology, master’s degrees in Community Psychology and Architecture, and a bachelor’s degree in health sciences. He has published five books pertaining to person-centred design: Environmental Psychology for Design is considered a seminal publication and is in its third edition. He served two appointed terms as Fulbright reviewer, and is two-time recipient of the Joel Polsky Prize. He has been invited to Costa Rica and Qatar to discuss health and wellbeing, and to Taiwan to discuss future trends toward health and wellbeing in design.

Kendall Marsh, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA

Kendall Marsh, a native of California, earned her bachelor’s degree in Interior Design at the Art Institute of California – Inland Empire. She contributed to a wide range of projects and gained valuable knowledge of the industry working alongside experienced architects and small business owners for more than five years before relocating to Nevada to pursue her master’s degree. As a graduate student in the Healthcare Interior Design program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, she presented at the Inaugural International Nursing Conference for Excellence in Healthcare Design at the Clemson School of Nursing in South Carolina. Kendall continually strives to learn and create innovative environments that positively impact health and wellbeing.


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