To Find a Seat: Tracing the Ideoscape of Seats in the Pathars’ Lifeworld in Penang
Main Article Content
|Issue||Vol. 6 No. 1 (2023)|
|Published||Jan 30, 2023|
Submitted : Sep 10, 2022 | Accepted : Dec 6, 2022
This article examines the roles taken by seats in the buildings that form the lifeworld of Pathars—traditional Tamil goldsmiths—as an ideoscape following their migration to Penang during the British colonial period in the 19th century. This study used a phenomenological ethnography method to bring Pathars’ lived experiences with their physical environment to the forefront, highlighting the subjectiveness of architecture that shapes their lifeworld. The ideoscape of seats is analysed in themes to examine the power and politics of seats in the Pathars’ lifeworlds, including present-day migrant workers. To find a seat is a metaphor that elicits discussion on Pathars’ existential lives and highlights how this community has attempted to negotiate its way as agents of change or to bring the agency to their position in creating spatial norms in place amidst the state reifying its enclaves with essentialised notions of ethnic identity, following the formation of nation-states.
Ahmad, A. T. (2015). Penang museums, culture and history. Kajian Malaysia, 33(2, Suppl.), 153–174.
Ahmed, S. (2006). Orientations: Toward a queer phenomenology. GLQ:A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 12(4), 543–574. https://doi.org/10.1215/10642684-2006-002
Ahmed, S. (2007). A phenomenology of whiteness.Feminist Theory, 8(2), 149–168. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464700107078139
Annual report on the social and economic progress of the people of the Straits Settlements in 1931 (1932). His Majesty's Stationery Office. https://seadelt.net/Asset/Source/Document_ID-407_No-01.pdf
Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. University of Minnesota Press.
Babbie, E. (2012). The practice of social research (13th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.
Baird, G. (2018). Phenomenology upside down: A response to Log 42. Log, 44, 15–25. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26588500
Bedford, J. (2018). Toward rethinking the politics of phenomenology in architecture. Log, 42, 181–185. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44840740
Bernard, H. R. (2017). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (6th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield.
Boccagni, P., & Schrooten, M. (2018). Participant observation in migration studies: An overview and some emerging issues. In R. Zapata-Barrero & E. Yalaz (Eds.), Qualitative research in European migration studies (pp. 209–225). Springer.
Casey, E. (2009) Getting back into place (2nd ed.). Indiana University Press.
City Council of George Town. (1966). Penang past and present 1786-1963. A historical account of the City of George Town since 1786. City Council of George Town.
Davis, C. L. (2018). Blackness in practice: Toward an architectural phenomenology of blackness. Log, 42, 43–54. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44840727
DeWalt, K. M., & DeWalt, B. R. (2002). Participant observation: A guide for fieldworkers. Altamira Press.
Donohoe, J. (Ed.). (2017). Place and phenomenology. Rowman & Littlefield.
Finlay, L. (2011). Phenomenology for therapists: Researching the lived world. Wiley Blackwell.
Furui, Y. (2016). Networked solitude: Walden, or life in modern communications. Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 58(3), 329–351. https://doi.org/10.7560/TSLL58304
Gabay, L. A. (2015). I hope I don’t see you tomorrow: A phenomenological ethnography of the passages academy school program. Sense Publishers.
Ghosh, T., Das, B., & Gangopadhyay, S. (2010). Work-related musculoskeletal disorder: an occupational disorder of the goldsmiths in India. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 35(2), 321–325. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.66890
Green, C. (2007). Tending the sacred. Psychological Perspectives, 50(2), 175–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/00332920701680983
Jameson, F. (1991). Postmodernism, or, the cultural logic of late capitalism. Duke University Press.
Janz, B. B. (Ed.). (2017). Place, space and hermeneutics. Springer.
Jorgensen, D. (1989). Participant observation. Sage Publications.
Jukariya, M. T., & Singh, S. (2018). Musculo-Skeletal Disorders (MSDs) risk assessment among goldsmiths by using RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) method. International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, 5(2), 33–39.
Katz, J., & Csordas, T. (2003). Phenomenological ethnography in sociology and anthropology. Ethnography, 4(3), 275–288. https://doi.org/10.1177/146613810343001
Li Y. (2020). Educational change amongst English language college teachers in China. Springer.
Malpas, J. E. (1999). Place and experience: A philosophical topography. Cambridge University Press.
Malpas, J. E. (2018). Place and experience: A philosophical topography (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Moitra, S., Chakraborty, K., Bhattacharyya, A., & Sahu, S. (2015). Impact of occupational cadmium exposure on spirometry, sputum leukocyte count, and lung cell DNA damage among Indian goldsmiths. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 58(6), 617–624. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22449
Norwood, B. E. (2018). Disorienting phenomenology: [Introduction]. Log, 42, 10–22. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44840723
Penang Global Tourism (n.d.). Experience Penang 2020. Penang. https://www.mypenang.gov.my/experience-2020/20-must-see-places-inpenang/view/little-india/?lg=en
Perec G. (1997). Species of spaces and other pieces (J. Sturrock, Ed.) Penguin Books.
Raman, S. K., & Zakaria, S. A. (2022). Temple as place: The Pathars and their devasthanam as a unit of analysis. Alam Cipta, 15(1), 48–56. https://doi.org/10.47836/ac.15.1.chapter07ac.id
Ready, E., Habecker, P., Abadie, R., Dávila-Torres, C. A., RiveraVillegas, A., Khan, B., & Dombrowski, K. (2020). Comparing social network structures generated through sociometric and ethnographic methods. Field Methods, 32(4), 416–432. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X20945499
Relph, E. (1976). Place and placelessness. Pion.
Riley, R. G., & Manias, E. (2004). The uses of photography in clinical nursing practice and research: A literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing,48(4), 397–405. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03208.x
Roth, B. M. (2018). The abetment of nihilism: Architectural phenomenology's ethical project. Log, 42, 127–135. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44840734
Seamon, D. (1979). A geography of the lifeworlds: Movement, rest, and encounter. St. Martin's Press.
Seamon, D. (2017) Architecture, place, and phenomenology: Lifeworlds, atmospheres, and environmental wholes. In J. Donohoe (Eds.), Phenomenology and place (pp. 247–264). Rowman & Littlefield.
Seamon, D. (2018a). Life takes place: Phenomenology, lifeworlds, and place making. Routledge.
Seamon, D. (2018b). Merleau-Ponty, lived body, and place. In T. Hünefeldt & A. Schlitte (Eds.), Situatedness and place: Multidisciplinary perspectives on the spatio-temporal contingency of human life (pp. 41–79). Springer.
Seamon, D. (2020). Place attachment and phenomenology: The dynamic complexity of place. In L. C. Manzo & P. Devine-Wright (Eds.), Place attachment: Advances in theory, methods and applications (2nd ed.) (pp. 29–44). Routledge.
Sheshadri, K. G. (2013). Grasses and their varieties in Indian literature. Asian Agri-History, 17(4), 325–334. https://www.asianagrihistory.org/pdf/volume17/grasses-kg-sheshadri.pdf
Simarmata, H. A. (2018). Lifeworld as the domain of adaptation planning. In H. A. Simarmata (Ed.), Phenomenology in adaptation planning: An empirical study of flood-affected people in Kampung Muara Baru Jakarta (pp. 17–38). Springer.
Stefanovic, I. L. (2008). Holistic paradigms of health and place: How beneficial are they to environmental policy and practice? In J. Eyles & A. Williams (Eds.), Sense of place, health and quality of life (pp. 45–57). Routledge.
Stein, W. B. (1971). The yoga of reading in Walden. Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 13(3), 481–495. https://www.jstor.org/stable/i40034311
Stewart, S. (2007). On longing: Narratives of the miniature, the gigantic, the souvenir, the collection. Duke University Press.
Teston, L. (2020). On the nature of public interiority. Interiority, 3(1), 61-82. https://doi.org/10.7454/in.v3i1.72
Thoreau, H. D. (2017). Walden and civil disobedience. Penguin Classics.
Toombs, S. K. (Ed.). (2001). Handbook of phenomenology and medicine. Kluwer Academic.
van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. State University of New York Press.
Weinthal, L. (2011). Toward a new interior: An anthology of interior design theory. Princeton Architectural Press.
Wang, C. (1999). Photovoice: A participatory action research strategy applied to women's health. Journal of Women’s Health,8(2), 185–192. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.1999.8.185
Wang, C., & Burris, M. A. (1997). Photovoice: Concept, methodology, and use for participatory needs assessment. Health Education & Behavior, 24(3), 369–387. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019819702400309
Yeoh, B. S. A., & Lau, W. P. (1995). Historic district, contemporary meanings: Urban conservation and the creation and consumption of landscape spectacle in Tanjong Pagar. In B. Yeoh & W. P. Lau (Eds.), Portraits of places: History, community and identity in Singapore (pp. 46–67). Times Editions.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Author(s) retain the copyright of articles published in this journal, with first publication rights granted to Interiority.